The Heart of Texas, The Alamo

While living in a place sprinkled with history may sound exciting and appealing to many people, actually appreciating the historical site that might be located across the street from where you live might require an extra second of consideration. The importance of historical events, historical constructions, or historical places might dwindle if you see them every day, but taking a spare moment to acknowledge them will make you feel a sense of wonder, humility, and appreciation. That is what the residents of San Antonio, Texas, experience every day as they walk past the most important historical site of Texas, also known as the heart of Texas, the Alamo.

Like many other historical cities, the city of San Antonio, Texas, began from one structure. One structure that had a mission and managed to attract people to the region. While in the old world in Europe, you might encounter fortresses that stood the test of centuries passing by, in Texas, there is the Alamo. Built May 1, 1718 by Father Antonio de Olivares, the Payaya, and the Pastia Indians, the Mission San Antonio de Valero, known today as the Alamo, is a historic Spanish mission and fortress compound meant to bring education and Christianity to the local American Indians.

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By 1793, Mision San Antonio de Valero was secularized, meaning that its purpose was cast aside, and the dissociation from religion took place. However, the structure remained. Decades went by, and history reshaped it, but the Alamo maintains its appeal for visitors from all over the country. From its stone front to the stories they whisper, this Shrine of Texas Liberty can share its story one more time. If you’re interested in living in the shadows of Texan history, go ahead and contact the local real estate agents in San Antonio TX. You might even discover some new things about the city from them.

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The Mission
At the start of the 18th century, the Spanish settlers and their government established several Roman Catholic missions in the Eastern side of Texas. As the distance between the missions was too large, the need for a waystation to simplify supply access resulted in the new mission, San Antonio de Valero, being built in 1718 near the San Antonio River. The leader of this mission was Father Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares, and it started with three to five converted American Indians from Mission San Francisco Solano. Close by, the governor of Spanish Texas founded San Antonio de Bexar, the first civilian community in Texas, the present-day city of San Antonio.

As the first settlement was considered a risk area for flooding, they moved the mission on the river’s west bank within a year. It expanded to 3 acres, and the permanent buildings were erected. The number of mission Indians grew to 300 by 1744, and the mission was self-sufficient with 2,000 head of cattle and 1,300 sheep. The farmland surrounding the mission was covered in crops of corn, beans, and cotton. Aside from the church that was never completed, around 30 adobe buildings were constructed for storerooms, workrooms, and residential quarters for the Indian residents.

The mission walls could withstand raids from Apache and Comanche attackers, and in 1745 around 100 mission Indians drove off 300 Apache raiders, saving the mission and the town from destruction. As a precaution and response to attacks on other missions, walls were built to enclose the convent, church, Indian homes, and cannons placed near the main gate. Because of their increased liability, the missions were stripped of their influence, Apache tribes stole the horses, and the Alamo lost its ability to support a large number of converts. With only 12 mission Indians left, by 1793, the mission was secularized.

The Battle
A nickname like the Alamo might make one wonder about its origins. Nowadays, the Alamo stands for the structure that began the foundation of the city of San Antonio, the original name is still used but it is less known. Still, the name actually started during the 19th century from either the Spanish word for cottonwood trees or from the “Alamo Company” of San Carlos de Parras. The source isn’t clear.

The Alamo saw the first conflicts during the Mexican War of Independence as Mexico fought to secure its independence from Spain. The regional struggles transformed parts of the mission in the political prison and hospital between 1806 and 1812. From 1821 to 1835, the Alamo was under Mexican control until the Texan Revolution came. According to historians, there was a siege at the San Antonio de Bexar that lasted nearly two months after which the garrison was surrendered by the Mexicans to the Texian forces. The victory was deceiving. While General Cos assumed command of 100 Texian and Tejano soldiers, he requested 200 more men from the Texian government, fearing the garrison might not withstand an attack. While the government denied the request and sent only 60 more men, fortification began, and cannons were installed to help defend the Alamo.

Mexican attack started with 1,500 men and the siege lasted for 13 days. The Texian army had limited chances of victory against such numbers. William Travis, co-commander of the Alamo, wrote a letter “To the People of Texas & All Americans around the World”, pleading for reinforcements under the patriotic vow “victory or death”. The result was that 300 men started the Alamo journey, but only 100 reached their destination. The Mexican reinforcements increased their numbers by 1,000. The courage to stand their ground and not cower in the face of such power, even if they knew that death awaited them, lives on to this day in the spirit of San Antonio. Almost all Texian defenders of the Alamo died in battle, and a third of the Mexican forces were killed.

While the Mexican President-General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna saw this victory as a tool to strike fear into the hearts of the Texian soldiers and assumed that it would end their resistance, the opposite happened. The Mexican army was defeated at San Jacinto Battle, and Santa Anna was captured, resulting in the retreat of the Mexican army and the end of the Texas Revolution. This year, the Fiesta San Antonio, the city’s biggest festival that commemorates the Battle of the Alamo was postponed due to COVID on June 17-27, having usually been planned during April.

The Legacy
After the Battle of the Alamo, views of Santa Anna alternated between the national hero who conquered the Alamo and the pariah. With his defeat and capture at the Battle of San Jacinto, disgrace followed his memory, with many Mexican accounts written by outspoken critics of the former President-General Santa Anna. Historical facts from the Battle of the Alamo were overshadowed in Mexican history by the importance of the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848.

The Alamo remained known by the largely Tejano population for its decades of assistance as either a mission, a hospital, or a military post. However, the growing English-speaking population knew it best for the Battle of the Alamo. Determining which of the two sides had more reason and justification for their view is up to you. Still, the growing English-speaking population was heard, and the Alamo imagery of Texian resistance grew. This led to a discrepancy between the two people living in the area, Texians and Tejanos, a drawn line with long-lasting effects until the early 20th century. Social differences divided the inhabitants, and this could also be seen in Mexico. Newspapers were either glorifying Santa Anna as the “Illustrious General” with his “Invincible Army” until his defeat or questioning the Battle of the Alamo’s logic that came at a great cost.

In the United States, the Alamo was remembered and used as a parallel to the Vietnam War. Rationalizing the need to send more troops to Southeast Asia, US President Lyndon Johnson remarked, “Just like the Alamo, somebody damn well needed to go to their aid” when speaking of the soldiers already on the front who were struggling. The backlash came from the public and the media (newspapers), with New York Times underlining the need to remember the Alamo for the “gallant men [who] died needlessly … To persevere is folly. To dare to retreat from error can be the highest form of courage.” The Alamo was the foundation for many anti-war protests during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

As a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Alamo inspired historians to write it down, directors to film it, and songwriters to sing it. Its legacy lives on through the books The Fall of the Alamo by Reuben Potter, The Alamo by John Myers Myers, the movies The Immortal Alamo by Gaston Melies (1911), The Alamo by John Wayne (1960), The Alamo by John Lee Hancock (2004) and several ballads like The Ballad of Davy Crockett by Tennessee Ernie Ford, The Ballad of the Alamo by Marty Robbins, or Remember the Alamo by Johnny Cash.

The cry “Remember the Alamo!” was heard first during the battle of San Jacinto when 800 Texans defeated the 1,500 men of the Mexican army. The same cry was revived during the Mexican-American War as the two armies fought during 1846-1848. The most exciting thing about history is that it allows us the time to see how lessons can be learned from it. However, the most important thing is not to forget history because then we are destined to repeat it.

The stories of the Alamo can still be felt, seen, and experienced in the city of San Antonio, Texas. Some might be known by many, some by few, and we are curious to learn more about what happened there. Many long-time residents, possible descendants of survivors of the battle, might have some uncovered histories to share, but you can try to learn more from them.

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Let us know in the comments section below if the history of a place influences your relocation decision. It might make a difference for some and none for others. We’re only asking because we know that this country was forged on the backbone of many small or large battles, and this was just one of them. This was the Heart and Shrine of Texas Liberty. Like & Share this article with friends and family as these little pieces of national history should be remembered and treasured by all.

Everything About Payday Loans

The statement that a payday loan will be your sheet anchor when you desperately require cash is rather sketchy. They, without any doubt, have got their very own positive factors. Nonetheless there are actually many disadvantages to this type of financial loans. I personally try to step back from this form of lending services. Nonetheless let us evaluate pretty much all advantages and drawbacks of these loans to create an objective view on this credit service.In actual fact, payday loans are money advances. When you get caught up in between your pay days with no money in your purse, you desperately require some funds from an outside source. Moreover if you are faced with various unpredicted expenses, you have got very poor credit rating, and credit cards aren’t any option for you, a payday loan is what exactly will be able to assist you to make it through until you obtain your next paycheck.Dealing with such kind of financing is merely like dealing with pretty much any other loan. You simply borrow a certain amount of cash with a commitment to return it back at the pre-agreed fee and rate.Payday Loans CostsDifferent creditors sanction loans at various fees and rates. And this particular problem actually is a drawback of these loans. You will often shell out from $ 15 – $ 30 for receiving $ 100. In terms of interest you would require to pay, it’s really drop-dead enormous. The interest rates range in between 390% and 780%. And this is really the worst part with regard to these loans. Let’s now proceed to the more pleasant aspects.Applying for a Payday LoanThe procedure for payday loans application is very simple. You can execute it on the Web, or go to a loan office. You complete a loan application and give a few personal details for a loan provider to make a loan decision. The requirements are usually pretty much the same: you have to be at least 18 or above, need to have a stable employment with a minimum monthly income of $ 1,000, and also a checking bank account. You will, quite possibly, be asked to give your social security number, copies of bank accounts and pay stubs. In case you fulfill all the specifications, you can be positive that you would be approved for a loan. Thereafter you normally have got to hang around for 24 hours (or less in some instances) and you will have the access to your cash.Payday Loans Positives and NegativesPayday loans really are a solution for cash-strapped individuals. In the event that you desperately want to get hold of some cash and you need the same fast, using a payday loan is certainly much better than stealing a bank. Another nice thing with regard to such sort of loans is that by getting one you do not expose yourself to a long term obligation, such as whenever managing a typical bank (when you get a mortgage, a car loan, or a reward charge card). You’ve got to pay back the money borrowed soon after you receive your next paycheck. Usually, the ceiling on the highest possible sum of money you can borrow is $ 2,500. Therefore, this is one more advantage of such loans. You just won’t bury yourself in big debts. And payday loans end up being significantly less expensive as compared to bounced checks.So, when you have a heap of bills to pay one day and no credit line or cash available for doing it, consider getting a payday loan. It is usually a good backup strategy for you. However be responsible with respect to paying it off on time, otherwise, you will encounter big charges and might get the sticky end of the stick. Recollect payday loans primarily in some cases of unexpected emergency, not whenever you feel like purchasing a new designer’s suit or jewelry.

Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:

1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;

2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.

First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.

This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.

Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.

V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.

In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;

2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.

If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of finances, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern economical literature. We may give such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. in this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This latest is very actual, relatively to the process of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in different countries, for example, Great Britain and France.

“Finances – are cash sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, also economical relations, which are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical subjects, movement of cash sources, money circulation and usage”.
“Finances are the system of economical relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources”.

We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The financial decisions are characterized by the expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account beforehand neither by those who get decisions nor any other person” . “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learns systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relatively to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decisions take place” .

These basic conceptions and quantitative models are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.

For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.

Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economical category of credit exists parallel to the economical category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistence of finances.

N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is only its “characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners’ rights”.

N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical basis for apportioning finances and credit as an independent category and gave rise to the credit and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has business with the research of such economical relations, which lean upon cash flow and credit.
Let’s discuss the most spread definitions of credit. in the modern publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For example, we meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economical relations between the creditor and borrower”.

This is the traditional definition of credit. In the earlier dictionary of the economy we read: “credit is the system of economical relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash and material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of returning and paying percent”.
In the manual of the political economy published under reduction of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, labour collective and workers during formation and usage of the loan funds, under the terms of paying present and returning, during transmission of sources for the temporal usage and accumulation”.

Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Credit has an objective character. It is used for providing widened further production of the state and other needs. Credit differs from finances by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition”.

We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical category, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation of credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical and money relations, the form of which is the money relation”.

Following scientists give slightly different definitions of credit:
“Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the percentage rate by the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined terms by the price of fixed percentage. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. In the process of this loan’s movement, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who gives certain cash as a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economical relations between the participants of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.

Though, at the same time we must distinguish two resembling concepts: loan and credit. Loan is characterized by:

o Here, the discussion may touch upon transmission of money and also things form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a)under the owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) under the conditions of returning same amount or same quantity and quality of the things;

o The loaning of money may bear no interest;

o Any person may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit, which is somehow a private occasion of the loan, represents:

o One side (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only money, and _ for temporal usage;

o It may not bear no interest (if the assignment doesn’t foresee something);

o In it creditor is not any person, but a credit organization (at the first place, banks).
So, a credit is the bank credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” as the synonyms.
Banking crediting is the union of relations between bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These relations touch upon:

a) Giving a certain amount of money to the borrower for definite purpose (though, we meet with the so-called free credits, aims and objects of crediting are not appointed in the assignment);

b) Its opportune returning;

c) Getting percentage rate from the borrower for using the sources under his/her disposal.
The essential foundation of the credit essence and its important element is existence of trust between the two sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit”, means “trust”).
From the position of circulation of money forms (in the abstraction, historical process of formation economical relations and social budget and banking systems expressed by them) comparing different definitions of finances and credit, the paradox conclusion appears: credit is the private occasion of finances. And truly, from the position of movement of the money forms, finances represent the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means. Very often such movements are fulfilled without returning, but sometimes, it is possible to give loans from the budget for the investment projects of other needs. Also, when a manufacture or corporations use their cash funds and we mean the finances of industrial subject, such usage may be realized as inside the manufacture or corporation (there is no subject about returning or not returning of the usage), so gratis under conditions of returning. This latest is called commercial form because of transmitting the sources to others, but even in this occasion, it is the element of financial system of the manufacture and corporation.

From the point of cash means movement, main character of credit is the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means under the conditions of returning and, as a rule, taking the value-percentage. If gating the credit value doesn’t take place (even in the exceptional occasions), according to the movement form, credit becomes a private occasion of finances, as from the net financial funds (consequently from the state budget) the loans which bear no interests may be used. If gating credit value takes place, by the appearance form, credit is discussed to be financial modification.

From the historical point of view, finances (especially in the sort of the state budget) and credit (beginning with usury, later commercial and banking) were developing differently for considering credit to be the part of finances. Though, from the genetic-historical point of view, previous loaners, before giving loan, needed gathering the permanent capital not returning, that is the net financial foundation. The banks analogously needed concentration of the important own capital for influxing the consumers’ means and for getting higher percentage rate under the conditions of returning. Herewith, exactly on the financial basis, in the sort of financial fund (which later partially becomes loan fund) part of the bank capital appears to be the reservation (insurance) part of the fund, which by nature is financial and not loan. So notwithstanding the essential distinctions between finances and credit form the genetic-historical point of view, credit appears to be formed from finances and represent their modification.

From the essential position of expressing economical relations of finances and credit, we meet with cardinal distinctions between these two categories. Which mostly expressed by the distinction of the movement forms notwithstanding they are returnable or not. Finances express relations in the aspects of distribution and redistribution of social product and part of the national wealth. Credit expresses distribution of the appropriate value only in the section of percentage given for loan, while according to the loan itself, a only a temporal distribution of money sources takes place.
Herewith, there is a lot of common between the finances and credit as from the essential point of view, so according to the form of movement. At the same time, there is a significant distinction between finances and credit as in the essence, so in the form too. According to this, there must be a kind of generally economical category, which will consider finances and credit as a total unity, and in the bounds of this category itself, the separation of the specific essence of the finances and credit would take place.

Funding of the cash means is common to the researched economical categories. It takes place in any separate system of finances and credit, which have been touched upon during the analyses of defining finances and credit. Word combination “funding of the cash sources (fund formation)” reflects and defines exactly essence and form of economical category of more general character, those of finances and credit categories. Though in the in economical texts and practice, it is very uncomfortable to use a termini, which consists of three words. Also, “unloading” with an information hardens greatly its influxing into the circulation even in the conditions of its strict substantiation and thoroughness.
In the discussing context we consider:

1) wide and narrow understanding of economical category of the finances;

2) discussing finances in narrow understanding under general traditional meaning;

3) discussing finances, as funding of the cash means, in wide understanding, which concerns finances – in narrow meaning and credit – in complete meaning.
Termini “funding” and its equivalent “fund formation” are used by us as the purposeful structuring of cash means, which is based on two poles – accumulation of money sources (gathering) and its usage for definite purpose in the way of financing and crediting.
We have established a new termini – “finance-investment sphere” (FIS). Analyses about interrelation of finances and credit made by us give us an opportunity of proving, that in the given termini, the word “financial” is used with the meaning of funding cash sources, its purposeful structuring. In this process we consider at the same time financial, credit and investments’ economical categories.

Let’s sum up middle results of discussing new concept – “finance-investment sphere” and discuss its investment consisting parts.

The concept “investments” was brought into the native economical science from the West. In the Soviet economical science they for a long time used in the place “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed the usage of the industrial factors in the sphere of real industrial activities during realization of capital projects. From one glance, this termini in its concept is identical to the “investments”, consequently it is possible to use them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “investing” have the advantage towards the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological points of view, because they are expressed with one word. This is not only economical and comfortable in the process of working with the termini “investment” itself, but also it gives an opportunity of termini formation. More concretely: “investment process”, “investment domain”, “finance-investment sphere” – all these termini are much more acceptable.
Changing native economical termini with foreign ones is purposeful, if it really matters (by keeping parallel usage of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we must not change native economical termini into foreign ones all together, when by ordinal traditional language easy to explain private and narrow concrete processes and elements get their own termini. The “movement” of these termini is approved in the narrow professional bounds, but their “spitting out” into the economical science may turn economical language into the tangled slang.

Let’s discuss termini – “investment” and “capital placement’s” usage in the economical literature.
Investments are placement of funds into the main and circulation capital for the purpose of getting profit. “Investments in material assets – are the placements of funds into the mobile and real estate (land, buildings, furniture and so on). Investments in financial assets are the placements of funds into the securities bank accounts and other financial instruments”.

We don’t meet with the termini “investments” in the earlier economical dictionary, but we meet the combined termini “investment policy” – the union of the industrial decisions, which guarantee main directions of the capital investments, the activities of their concentration in the determinant suburbs, on which the reaching of planned rates of development of the society production is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting more and more production and profit of the national income for every lost Ruble”. For today, in the most actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded only by financial means, when not only financial, but also the investment of natural, material-technical and informational resources takes place. Labour resources take an actual place in the investment process. They themselves fulfill this or that investment process.

A positive side of the discussed definitions is that they connect investment policy and capital placements (investments):

- economical development according to the key directions to the concentration;

- providing high rates of economical growth;

- raising an economical effectiveness, which is expressed:

a) by growing the throw off of the production and national income for every lost Ruble;

b) by fulfilling the branch structure of the investments;

c) by improving their technological structure;

d) by optimization of their further production structure.

Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments in the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering production and industrial means and increasing material reserve”. In this definition current expenses (production expenses) are mixed with the investment (capital) expense. Also, not the investment expenses but (though the investments are followed by the appropriate expenses) exactly advancing. It differs from the expenses by that the means (means) are put by returning the advanced values, also, under the conditions of growth, to which the concept-advanced capital is corresponding. the advancing may be realized in the money, natural-material and informational forms.

Except the termini “investments”, there are two more termini related with the investment. They are shown below.

“Human capital investment” – any activity provided for rising the workers labour productivity (in the way of growing their qualification and developing their abilities); at the expenses of improving the workers’ education, health and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It is very useful to use the mentioned termini, though it needs one correction: the human capital investments do not concern only workers, but also the servants, representatives of every kind of labour.
“Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”

In the official manuals of political economy of the reformation time the capital investments are discussed as “expenses for creating new main funds and widening, reconstruction and renewing the active ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) during separation of the forms (types) of further production of the main funds are bounded only by main funds (without increases of the circulation funds and insurance reserves):

a) creating new ones;

b) widening;

c) reconstruction;

d) renewing.

Also, the concept of the industrial gathering appears, at the expenses of widening of basic, circulation funds and also insurance reserves takes place”.

You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the course of economy”: the investments are called “placements of fund into the basic capital (basic means of production), reserves, also other economical objects and processes, which request long-termed influxing of material and cash means. “According to the division of capital into physical and money forms, the investments too must be divided into material and cash investments”.

They apportion investment commodity, to which belong industrial and nonindustrial building objects, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, increasing reserves and others.

“They call the total investments of production an investment product, which is directed towards keeping and increasing the basic capital (basic means) and reserve. Total investments consist of two parts. One of them is called the depreciation; it represents important investment resources for compensation of renewal till the level of before industrial usage, wearing out and repairing of the basic means. Second consisting part of the total investments is represented by net investments – capital investments for the purpose of increasing basic means”. Depreciation is not a compensation resource of wearing the basic funds out, but it is the purposeful financial source of such resources.
Human capital investment is “a specific kind of investments, mostly in education and health protection”.

“Real investments are the investments in the economical branches and also, they are kinds of economical activities, which provide influxing the increases of real capital, that is increasing material values of the industrial means”. We can agree with such definition with one specification that material and nonmaterial values too belong to the real capital (wealth), consequently science-researching experimental-construction results, various information, education of he workers and others. Such service as organization of the excitable games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one private person to another (except charity).

“Financial investments represent placement of funds into the shares, obligations, promissory notes, other securities and instruments. Such investments, of course, do not give increases of the real material capital, but they help getting profit, consequently at the expenses of changing the course of the securities in the time of speculation, or distinguishing the course in different places of sell and purchasing”. We share wholly such definition, hence it follows that financial investments (if it is not followed by real investments as a result) do not increase real material wealth and real nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression below is very important: “we must distinguish financial investments, which represent placement of the funds in the ways of selling and purchasing the securities for the purpose of getting profit and financial investments, which become cash and real, moved to real physical capital.”

In the “economical course” quoted before long and short-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the existence of the bounds between them, the authors ascribe short-termed investments to “one month or more” investments. If we get such conditioned criteria, that we can call the investments which overcome the terms of some months, long-termed ones, which is very doubtful and we don’t agree with it. A long-termed character of the fund placement is a significant feature of the investments (short-term doesn’t combine with the concept of investments). Principally, it would be better to point out quick compensative, middle termed compensative and long-termed compensative investments:

- less then 6 months – quick compensative;

- from 6 months up to the year and a half – middle termed compensative;

- more then the year and a half – long termed compensative.

We stopped at the definition of the investments in the capital work “economical course” for the special purpose, as, in it the author tried to discuss the concept of investments systemically and quite completely, herewith the book is published just now.

We’ll return to the discussion the definition economical category of “investments” in different publications in the following chapter. The definitions given here are quite enough for having a notion of the level of lighting up the given category in the economical literature.
What conclusions may be made according the definition of the mentioned economical category in the published works, except the made notions and specifications?

There is quite deeply, concretely and thoroughly defined the concept of “investments”, different definitions in the economical literature; but mostly in every works about the investments discussed by us until now, there is not opened the essence of investments as an economical category. In every monograph , even if it has a title investment, as an economical category , there is given only the definition, concept of investments. But, as the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “a concept is a discussion, which proves something about the distinguishing feature of the researched object. A concept out of much essential characteristic features represents only one, and essential in it is only – definition”.

But the categories are much wider; it is “a key, the most fundamental concept of every science”. Economical categories theoretically represent real, objectively existed productive relations. A category is the defining of occasions of existed characters, connections, relations of the objective world. Generally, any educational process is fulfilled by the categories, which give opportunities for dividing the processes and occasions semantically, for expressing the definitions of a subject and realize their specific peculiarities and economical relations of a material world.
Our goal is exactly to substantiate investments – as an economical category and also, as a financial category in the narrow understanding.

Here we apply for another manual thesis made by the academician Vasil Chantladze: “every financial relation is an economical one and every financial category is and economical one, but not every economical relation and economical category is financial relation and financial category”.
In the process of defining the investments, it is important to take in mind the sides of resources, expenses and incomes, because investment, from one side, is the result of the manufacture’s activity, and, from another one, – a part of income, which, in this case, is not used for usage.
Another occasion: it is advisable to discuss investments in two aspects: as a category of reserve and flow, which will reflect exactly the connection between “placement of funds” and “investments”.